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A rose by any other name.
Our brass band instruments are were originally confined to a class of people
who were lucky if they could read English, let alone music. It became
standard practice to pre-transpose brass parts for these early players so
that they would only have to learn one set of notation. The tradition has
remained. It is also quite convenient for composers and arrangers, who don't
have to work too hard when all of the instruments are in either Bb or Eb
pitch. The one exception was the old 'G' trombone, whose fundamental note
(closed position pedal) was concert pitch G.
By the way, a baritone is an alto instrument. It is the euphonium which is
the tenor tuba.
Trumpets have, or used to a conical shaped mouthpiece, which projects the
sound more than the cup shaped cornet mouthpiece. This makes the sound more
penetrating, (to help it fulfil it's original function as an alarm call), so
a trumpet would stick out far too much in the mild brass band sound.
The French horn was originally a hunting instrument, and was designed to
send it's sound over long distances in the open. Over the centuries it has
developed its peculiar shape and rotary valves, (because the Germans
preferred it that way), and its particular timbre would again e out of
place, except in special circumstances, in a brass band. In any case most
French horn players are snobs. There is also a matter of the conical
mouthpiece as with the orchestral trumpet.
The Flugel Horn is actually just a large bore cornet. Its cup shaped
mouthpiece means the timbre fits in well with a brass band.
If you want to know more about the messy details, let me know and I'll write
you an essay on it.